حقّ فسخ ابتدایی قرارداد، حقّی است که بدون الزام قبلیِ متعهّد به اجرای تعهّد، برای متعهدٌله وجود دارد. مطابق اسناد بینالمللی مانند کنوانسیون بیعِ بینالمللیِ کالا، اصول حقوق قراردادهای تجاری بینالمللی و همچنین اصول حقوق قراردادهای اروپایی، حقّ فسخ ابتدایی در فرض تحققِ نقضِ اساسی، مورد پذیرش واقع شده است. در این پژوهش حقّ فسخ ابتدایی قرارداد در فقه امامیه و حقوق ایران نسبت به نظامهای حقوقی کامنلا و رومی-ژرمنی با مطالعة موردیِ حقوق کشورهای انگلستان بهعنوان یک کشور تابع نظام حقوقی کامنلا و فرانسه و آلمان دو کشور تابع نظام حقوقی رومی-ژرمنی بهطور تطبیقی مورد بررسی قرار گرفته است. در حقوق انگلستان در صورت نقض اساسی تعهداتِ وابسته، حقّ فسخ ابتدایی پذیرفته شده و در حقوق فرانسه نیز فسخ ابتدایی در مواردی که نقض تعهد، جدّی است، منوط به اطلاع متعهّد، هشدار و انقضای مهلت اضافه است. در حقوق آلمان اِعمال حقّ فسخ ابتدایی برای متعهدٌله منوط به گذشت زمان است، درمقابل در فقه امامیه، اقوال چندگانه و متشتّت در این زمینه وجود دارد. گروهی بهصِرف نقض قرارداد، متعهدٌله را مُحق در اجبار متعهد به انجام تعهد میدانند که این قول، قول مشهور فقهای امامیه است. گروهی دیگر حقّ فسخ را بر اجبار ترجیح دادهاند و دستهای دیگر از فقها نیز همانند امام خمینی (ره)، با اعتقاد به همعرض بودن حقّ فسخ و حقّ اجبار، متعهدٌله را مخیّر در اِعمال فسخ و یا اجبار متعهّد دانستهاند. در قوانین ایران نیز رویکردهای مختلفی اتخاذ شده، هرچند رویة قضایی در این زمینه کاملاً روشن و قائل به تقدّم اجرا بر فسخ قرارداد است
عنوان مقاله [English]
A Comparative Study of The Feasibility of Granting the Right of Primary Rescission of Contract to the Obligee in Imamieh Jurisprudence and Iranian Law with a Comparative Study of Common Law and Roman-Germanic Legal Systems.
In the basics of contract law, the principle is that the parties to the contract are required to fulfill their obligations and any change or withdrawal from the contract requires the agreement of the parties or the existence of one of the legal termination cases. Despite the fact that contracts are binding in some cases, the obligee may have the right to terminate the contract without the obligee's agreement, in order to avoid undue damages caused by the obligee's breach of contract. This right is called the right of initial termination of the contract. The right of early termination of the contract is a right that exists for the obligor without the prior obligation of the obligee to perform the obligation and obligate it to perform the same contract. This right is of special importance for the obligee because it gives him the right to waive his contract and release his contractual responsibilities if necessary. Iran's civil law is silent on the issue of termination for breach of contract, and according to Imami jurisprudence, the principle is that the right to terminate the contract is given to the obligee only with the agreement of the parties or the existence of one of the legal cases of termination. However, some jurisprudents, in certain cases, have believed in granting the right to early termination of the contract to the obligee, including the cases where the termination is justified, the following can be mentioned: if the obligee fulfills his obligation in a way to put the obligee at risk or if the obligee has a long-term delay in fulfilling his obligation. Among the jurists of Imamiyyah, there is no unanimous ruling on the execution of obligations or having the right to terminate, and in Iranian law, granting the right to early termination of the contract to the obligor, in order to protect his rights and interests and to reduce the amount of damage and to have proof of the negation of the damage is on the principle of necessity. It can be proved in some ways. For example, if the concluded contract contradicts the laws and regulations of the country, the obligee can have the right to terminate the contract early. According to international documents such as the Convention on the International Sale of Goods, the principles of the law of international commercial contracts, as well as the principles of the law of European contracts, the right of initial termination is accepted in the event of a fundamental breach of the main obligations. In the common legal system, the right to terminate the performance guarantee is a breach of contractual obligations, and the right to early termination of the contract to the obligee may be less seen due to the limitations that exist in these systems. In this system, due to the existence of strict laws in the case of keeping contractual obligations and adhering to them, the right of early termination of the contract to the obligee is less than in Imami jurisprudence and Iranian law. In the Roman-Germanic legal system, the right of early termination of the contract to the obligee depends on the terms of the contract and legal laws. The country may be restricted. In this legal system, more attention is paid to maintaining contractual obligations and communication with the obligee, and for this reason, the obligee's right to early termination of the contract is less than Imami jurisprudence and Iranian law. Paying attention to the comparative study of the feasibility of granting the right to early termination of the contract to the obligor, in Imami jurisprudence and Iranian law and common law and Roman-Germanic legal systems, it can be concluded that in these systems, the right of early termination of the contract to the obligee depending on the conditions of the contract and the legal laws of the country, they may have a more limited scope of implementation. In this research, the right of initial termination of the contract in Imami jurisprudence and Iranian law is compared to the common law and Roman-German legal systems with a case study of the laws of England as a subordinate country. The legal system of common law and France and Germany, two countries subject to the Roman-German legal system, have been comparatively examined. In English law, the right of initial termination is accepted in case of violation of obligations or the main conditions, and in French law, initial termination is also accepted in cases of violation. A serious obligation is subject to the obligee's notice, warning, and the expiration of the additional period. In German law, the exercise of the right of initial termination for the obligee is subject to the passage of time. A group has considered that the obligee is entitled to force the obligee to perform just by breaching the contract, which is the famous opinion of Imamiyyah jurists. Another group has preferred the right of rescission over coercion, and another group of jurists, like Imam Khomeini (may God bless him and grant him peace), have considered the obligee as benevolent in the acts of rescission or coercion, believing that the right of rescission and the right of coercion are the same. Various approaches have been adopted in Iran's laws, although the judicial procedure in this field is quite clear and gives priority to enforcement over termination of the contract.