بررسی نقش الزامات افشا در حمایت مؤثر از دانش و طب سنتی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار، گروه حقوق عمومی و بین الملل، دانشگاه علامه طباطبائی

2 دکتری حقوق خصوصی، دانشگاه علامه طباطبائی

چکیده

با توجه به‌ضرورت اقدام حقوقی در جهت حمایت از دانش و طب سنتی، در عرصه بین‌المللی تلاش‌هایی در جهت جلوگیری از استفاده­ غیرمجاز و تثبیت مالکیت کشورها بر این دانش صورت پذیرفته است. یک از کلیدی‌ترین و درعین‌حال چالش‌برانگیزترین سازوکارهای پیشنهادی الزامات افشا است  بر اساس این پیشنهاد، متقاضیان ثبت اختراع باید در صورت استفاده از دانش سنتی و بومی در ابداعاتشان، نام تأمین‌کننده و منشائی که از طریق آن به دانش دست‌یافته‌اند را افشا کنند و گواهی دال بر اجازه برای چنین استفاده­ای و تعیین نحوه­ تقسیم عادلانه منافع را ارائه کنند. پرسشی که این مقاله درصدد بررسی آن خواهد بود  این است که الزامات افشا تا چه اندازه می‌توانند حمایت مؤثر از دانش و طب سنتی را فراهم آورد و با سرقت زیستی مقابله کند؟ همچنین، با توجه به پیشنهاد کشورهای درحال‌توسعه برای درج الزامات افشا از طریق موافقت‌نامه راجع به جنبه‌های مرتبط با تجارت حقوق مالکیت فکری و سند بین‌المللی حمایت از دانش سنتی در سازمان جهانی مالکیت فکری، این مقاله در ادامه به بررسی فرایند و چالش‌های پیش رو تصویب این پیشنهاد در این اسناد می‌پردازد.

تازه های تحقیق

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کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Role of Disclosure Requirements in Providing Effective Protection of Traditional Knowledge and Medicine

نویسندگان [English]

  • mehdi zahedi 1
  • Mohammad Hossein Erfanmanesh 2
1 Associate Professor of Allameh Tabataba'i University, Tehran, IRAN
2 PhD Candidate in Public Law of Allameh Tabataba'i University, Tehran, IRAN
چکیده [English]

Due to the need for legal action to protect traditional knowledge and medicine, efforts to prevent unauthorized use and to consolidate the possession of the owner countries on this knowledge have been made in the international arena. One of the key and most challenging proposed mechanisms for protection of traditional knowledge and medicine is disclosure requirements through the sui generis system of traditional knowledge protection. According to this proposal which targets misappropriation of traditional medicine through patent applications involving the utilization of traditional knowledge, patent applicants would be required to disclose the country providing such resources, and to provide relevant information regarding compliance with prior informed consent and access and fair and equitable benefit.
The question that this Article tries to examine is to what extent the disclosure requirement could provide effective protection for traditional medicine and prevent biopiracy? Also, as it is proposed that these requirement to be incorporated in TRIPS Agreement within World Trade Organization and draft articles for protection of traditional knowledge in World Intellectual Property Organization, this Article will analyses the process and challenges of both proposals.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • "Disclosure"
  • "Knowledge"
  • "Medicine"
  • "Consent"
  • "Terms"
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