تقابل فرم‏ها، کنوانسیون بیع بین‏ المللی کالا ، شروط متعارض قراردادی، تجارت بین‏ا لملل، بیع بین‏ الملل

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استاد حقوق خصوصی دانشگاه شهید بهشتی

2 دانشجوی دکتری حقوق خصوصی دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

 




در عالم مبادلات تجاری بسیار اتفاق می‏افتد که خریدار و فروشنده هر کدام با ارسال مکاتباتی جداگانه و در پاسخ هم ، قصد خود را برای انعقاد قرارداد بیع اعلام می‏نمایند. شروط عمومی وفرم‏هایی نیز که از پیش به صورت یکسان برای تمام قراردادها از سوی خریدار یا فروشنده تنظیم شده در این میان بین طرفین مبادله می‏شوند. این شروط عمومی ممکن است در فرم‏های خریدار و فروشنده با هم در تعارض باشند. در هنگام بروز اختلاف بین طرفین قرارداد، سؤال این است که آیا با وجود این تغایر، قراردادی منعقد شده یا نه و اگر پاسخ مثبت است، مفاد این قرارداد چیست؟ مجموع اوضاع و احوال و رفتار طرفین پس از مبادله فرم‏ها معمولا حکایت از انعقاد قراردادی معتبر دارد و منطقی‏تر است که مفاد این قرارداد نیز در قسمتی که راجع به فرم‏های متعارض است، به جای اینکه توسط یکی از شروط متعارض طرح شده به وسیله طرفین (مثلا اولین یا آخرین آن‌ها با لحاظ تقدم و تاخر فرم‏های مبادله شده) تعیین شود، توسط قانون حاکم بر قرارداد معین شود. چنانچه قانون حاکم بر قرارداد، عهدنامه بیع بین‏الملل کالا باشد این نقش بر عهده عهدنامه است.




 


 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Battle of Forms, United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG), Conflicting Contract Terms, International Sale, International Trade Law, Vienna Sale Convention

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hamid Reza Nikbakht 1
  • Shaha Jafaro NADOUSHAN 2
چکیده [English]

In the realm of commercial trade, it is a common practice that sellers and buyers
manifest their intentions to conclude the contract of sale through different
communications and correspondence. The parties may exchange forms and
general terms prepared invariably in advance for all contracts. There may be a
conflict between the buyer’s and the seller’s forms. Thus, when a dispute arises
between the parties, the main question is whether a contract has been
concluded, even though there are conflicting terms. If the answer is positive, a
further question is: What are the terms of this contract?
By considering circumstances and conduct of the parties, on the whole, after the
exchange of the forms, it can be said that there is a valid contract. A viable
solution is to disregard the conflicting terms, and instead, to consider provisions
of the law governing the contract. When CISG is the law applicable to the sale
contract, its provisions may well be used to fill the gaps after conflicting terms
are ruled out.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Battle of Forms
  • United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG)
  • Conflicting Contract Terms
  • International Sale
  • International Trade Law
  • Vienna Sale Convention
 
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