جایگاه بین المللی کالای عمومی در رویکرد عدالت توزیعی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

کالاهای عمومی کالاهایی هستند که باری رفع نیاز های عمومی بشر  با تشدید جهانی شدن این کالاها  نیز گستره جهانی یافته اند  منقص در تامین این ها  در سطح جهانی  لزوم  همکاری بیشتر دولت ها  و سازمان های بین المللی  را در توزیع ان بیشتر می سازد  این ایده اولین بار در اماذ نظربه تاثیرگذاری در تامین نیازهای مردم در شاخه های گوناگون زندگی  می توان ان را به مثابه یک نظریه حجامع الشمول  در حوزه های مختلف به ویژه در توزیع منابع بین کشورهای مختلف مطرح کرد  هدف مقاله حاضر کشور رویکرد عدالت توزیعی در نظریه کالاهای عمومی  و بررسی جایگاه ان در میان نظریه های شاخص در زمینه عدالت ت.زیعی می باشد  که با ذکر مصادیقی از کالاهای عمومی جهانی و وضعیت تامین ان ها پیشنهادهایی برای بهبود تامین جهانی این کالاها به خصوص منابع مالی جهانی به عنوان یک کالاای عمومی ضروری برای تامین سایر کالاهای عمومی ارائه خواهد شد 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

International Position of Public Goods from the Distributive Justice Point of View

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mahmood Bagheri
  • Somayyeh Sadat Miri Lavasani
چکیده [English]

Public goods are used to meet the essentianl needs of the people in general. Acceleration of globalization besides other reasons, have conferred a global characteristic to these goods which the shortage in their provision at international level, necessitates further cooperation between states and international organizations in their distribution. This idea was first introduced in Economy, but due to its influence on
provision of peoples’ needs in different life domains, it can be considered as a thorough theory covering a wide range of issues especially in distribution of resources among individuals and countries. The present article aims at exploring the distributive attitude in public goods theory and its place among other notable theories regarding distributive justice. Further, while presenting examples of global public goods and describing the situation of their provision in the world, the author tries to propose suggestions for refinement of the global provision of these goods notably global financial resources which is necessary for provision of other public goods.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Distributive Justice
  • Global financial resources
  • Global public goods
  • International Monetary Fund
  • public goods
  • World Bank
 
 Allie, Mohammad. (Nov 2003), “As inequalities grow”, Panos newspaper.
 Barlow, Maude. (2010), “Access to Clean Water is Most Violated Human Right”, The Guardian, July 21.
 Birdsall, Nancy, “Overcoming Coordination and Attribution Problems Meeting the Challenges of Underfunded Regionalism”, in: The New Public Finance, also available at Center for Global Development Working Paper 49: www.cgdev.org/docs/WP%2049_1.pdf.
 Chossudovsky, Michel. (2 May 2008), “Global Famine, Global Research”, Source:
http://www.globalresearch.ca/index.php?context=va&aid=8877
 Chossudovsky, Michel, (2003), the Globalization of Poverty and the New World Order, Second Edition, Montreal.
 Commission on Macroeconomics and Health.  _______, (2002), “Global Reports: An Overview of their Evolution”, An ODS Staff Paper, Office of Development Studies, United Nations Development Programme, New York, December.
 Hjorth Agerskov, Anders. (12 May 2005), “Senior Policy Officer”, International Affairs, World Bank, Seminar Number 6.
 _______, “Global Public Goods and Development – A Guide for Policy Makers”, in: World Bank Seminar Series: Global Development Challenges Facing Humanity, Kobe and Hiroshima Universities, Japan.
 IMF (1997). World Economic Outlook (1997), Washington DC
 IMF (1998), World Economic Outlook (1998), Washington DC  Kaul, Inge., Grunberg, Isabelle. & Stern, Marc A. (eds.), (1999), Global Public Goods: International Cooperation in The 21st Century, Published for the United Nations Development Program (UNDP), Oxford University.
 Kaul, Inge, Le Goulvenb, Katell. & Hofer, Walter,, (Jan 2003) Thinking Beyond Foreign Affairs: Institutional Choices for Global Challenges, An issue paper, Head, Division Bretton Woods Institutions, Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC).
 Kessinjer, Henry. “The context of the 1974 National Security Study Memorandum 200”.
 Nordau's, William D. (5 May 2005), “Paul Samuelson and Global Public Goods”, in: A commemorative essay for Paul Samuelson, , Yale University.
 Nozick, Robert (????), Anarchy, State and Utopia.
 Papaioannou, Theo, (2008), “Nozick Revisited: The Formation of the Right-Based Dimension of his Political Theory”, International Political Science Review; 29; 261
 Pogge, Thomas, (2008), World Poverty and Human Rights, Polity.
 _______,(2002), Profiling the Provision Status of Global Public Goods, An ODS Staff Paper, Office of Development Studies United Nations Development Program, New York, December.
 Rawls, John. (1971), A Theory of Justice.
 Samuelson, Paul.(1954),The Pure Theory of Public Expenditure.
 Smith, Richard D & Mc Kellar, Landis. (2007), “Global public goods and the global health agenda: problems, priorities and potential”, Globalization and Health, 3:9, doi: 10.1186/1744-8603-3-9.
 Stiglitz, Joseph E. (1998), “Knowledge as a Global Public Good”,WorldBank,at:
 
http://www.worldbank.org/knowledge/chiefecon/articles/undpk2/w2wtoc.htm
 Stoneman, Paul. (27 Jan 1999), Technological Change and R&D, Warwick Business School, in: The Economics of the Knowledge Driven Economy: Papers presented at a conference jointly organized by the Department of Trade and Industry and the Centre for Economic Policy Research, London.
 Tan, Kok-Cho. (2002), Liberal Nationalism and Cosmopolitan Justice, Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 5: 431–461, Kluwer Academic Publishers
 UNDP (1996), “Human Development Report 1996”, New York: Oxford University Press.
 UNDP, (2001), “Human Development Report 2001, Making new technologies work for human development”, available at: http://www.undp.org/hdr2001
 Woodward, David & Smith, Richard D,, “Global Public Goods and Health: concepts and issues”, from the series of Trade, foreign policy, diplomacy and health, available at: www.who.org
 World Food & Hunger, available at: www.globalpolicy.org
 www.crfonline.org/orc/glossary/p.html
 www.facsnet.org/index.php
 www.moneywebtax.co.za/moneywebtax/view/moneywebtax/en/page1028.
 www.worldbank.org Home > About Us > Global Economy:
Global Public Goods.